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Table 3 Quantitative summary of time lags – years from “discovery” to UK implementation

From: How long does biomedical research take? Studying the time taken between biomedical and health research and its translation into products, policy, and practice

Case study topics Overall time lag in years from “discovery” to implementation (ie not always counting some initial discovery time) Field: cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mental health (MH) Intervention type Lag from “discovery” to start of first phase I trial or human research Lag from phase I to start of first phase II trial Lag from phase II to start of first phase III trial Lag from start of phase III or human research to first research review and synthesis Lag from research review and synthesis to first policy statement Lag from policy statement to implementation
1: Amlodipine 23 years CVD Pharmaceutical 3 1 2 10 7 0
2: Olanzapine 20 years MH Pharmaceutical 4 2 5 5 4 0
3: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening 26 years CVD Screening 0 1 5 14 5 1
4a: Smoking reduction: Evidence on passive smoking to widespread bans 39 years CVD Public health 14 n/a n/a 5 19 1
4b: Smoking reduction: Link between smoking and ill health to ban on advertising (Top TV ban, Bottom widespread ban) 26 years CVD Public health 12 n/a n/a 6 8 0
54 years 30 6
5: Cognitive behavioural therapy and depression 49 years MH Psychosocial 15 n/a n/a 12 12 10
6: Cognitive behavioural therapy and schizophrenia 48 years MH Psychosocial 17 n/a n/a 23 0 8
7: Early intervention for schizophrenia 18 years MH Service configuration/Health service delivery 6 n/a n/a Reviews after implementation 7 5